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, I would like to thank Catharine Mason and David Roberts for translating the manuscript from French into English and Bertrand Masquelier for his comments on the draft. Thanks are also due to Alexandra Argenti-Pillen and Stephen Pax Leonard for their invitation to present a previous version of this paper at a seminar of the Royal Anthropological Institute in London in, 2015.
, This goal is shared by my colleagues at Lacito, a research laboratory affiliated to the French National Centre for Scientific Research in Paris, and is especially developed in our seminar series on metaphor. It has also been promoted in a book co-authored with Sandra Bornand, Anthropologie des pratiques langagières, 2013.
, As far back as 1910, Malinowski explains his concept of language in a note in Polish about Frazer's "The Golden Bough" (see Thornton and Skalnik, pp.117-122, 1993.
, I use the term "fact" to insist on the factual or empirical existence of a linguistic phenomenon
presents myths as being much more determined by each other than by their enunciation context. However, he does not completely neglect the sociocultural context. Indeed, he even gives it some importance and considers it interesting insofar as the dialogue with the socio-cultural context alone makes it possible to understand the scope of a mytheme. In his analysis, he is thus continually led to study a particular element of social organisation, the symbolism of a particular animal, rite or custom etc. He suggests three methodological guidelines for succeeding in the study of myths, including knowledge of the ethnographic context being the second part of the third guideline, pp.60-67, 1976. ,
initiated a new and influential theory which they initially called 'the ethnography of speaking', and later 'the ethnography of communication, Gumperz and Hymes, 1962. ,
, We can, however, criticize some aspects of Calame-Griaule 1986, including a forced construction of indigenous concepts, which are, in reality, disparate and fragmentary. This reproach specifically concerns the first part of the book, devoted to the theory and mythology of speech, in line with her father's work. However, the part she devotes to
, The title in the French original is "Le soin de la parole
, For a discussion of the performativity of unmentionables, see Fleming and Lempert, 2011.
, Particulary since the publication of Arewa and Dundes, 1964.
, The Experience of the Proverb", written in 1913, was published for the first time in 1925. Paulhan spent more than twenty years writing this PhD thesis about proverbs but never finished it, About Jean Paulhan, see Syrotinski, 1998.
, See also Argenti-Pillen's (2003) research about Sri Lanka
, , pp.639-642
, Zande has no designated term defining the proverb as a traditional saying. The word 'sanza is wider in meaning and refers to "any remark or action which is intended to be oblique, opaque, ambiguous, any words or gestures which are intended to suggest a meaning other than they have in themselves, p.166, 1956.
, See also Ochs Keenan (1976) for a discussion about Grice's conversational maxims
, Since the young men cannot respond directly, not being entitled to name children themselves, they respond instead through the names they give to puppies, 1985.
98) who defines names as: "tools used in social interaction, which can be put to ever-new uses, 2006. ,
, See for example the texts presented in Furniss & Gunner, 1995.
, However men may analyse their experiences within any domain, they inevitably know and understand them best by referring them to other domains for elucidation. It is in that metaphoric cross-referencing of domains, perhaps, that culture is integrated, providing us with the sensation of wholeness. And perhaps the best index of cultural integration or disintegration, or of genuineness or spuriousness in culture for that matter, is the degree to which men can feel the aptness of each other's metaphors, p.25, 1986.
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, Self-Representation, A Point Is Which Has No Part, pp.23-23